Circulating microparticle levels in patients with coronary artery disease: a new indicator of vulnerability? - Figure 1
Release of microparticles (MPs) into the blood stream following cell activation or apoptosis. MPs released from endothelial cells and/or platelets, characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure and presence of CD31 (CD31+ AnnV+ MPs) may serve as a pronostic marker for major adverse cardiovascular events. In addition, circulating MPs may contribute to the development of athero-thrombosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, favouring intraplaque angiogenesis and thrombus formation.
Illustration of the reciprocal interaction between endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and the natural history of coronary artery disease. Blue arrows marked with the box ‘ED’ represent processes in which endothelial dysfunction modifies the evolution or prognosis of coronary artery disease. Red arrows represent ways in which coronary artery disease contributes to a worse endothelial function.
Possible mechanisms for signal transduction from remote ischaemic tissue (upper arm) to target organ (heart).
Aortic root growth rates in Marfan patients on beta-blockers (green circles) and those on losartan (red squares), extrapolated from the four published randomized studies.