Endothelial progenitor cell capture stents: will this technology find its niche in contemporary practice?
Schematic diagram illustrating the underlying principal behind the EPC capture stent. The CD-34 antigen on the EPC binds to the anti CD-34 antibody on the stent's surface to promote rapid endothelialisation.
Technique of carotid endarterectomy. An atherosclerotic lesion involving the common carotid artery (CCA), internal carotid artery (ICA), and external carotid artery (ECA) is demonstrated on the left panel. The middle panel demonstrates plaque removal following a longitudinal incision of the vessel. The right panel shows the arteriotomy repair with the use of a patch.
Strategies for emboli protection devices in carotid artery stenting. On the left panel, a filter device is demonstrated; in the middle, a distal balloon occlusive device; and in the right panel, a proximal occlusive device. CCA, common carotid artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; ECA, external carotid artery.
Carotid artery stenting procedure. Following engagement of the common carotid artery (CCA) with a guiding catheter or long sheath, the lesion in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is passed with a wire or with the filter emboli protection device (A). Subsequently, a self-expanding stent is deployed, usually covering the carotid bifurcation (B and C). Thereafter, a balloon post-dilatation is performed to achieve good stent expansion (D). ECA, external carotid artery.
Appropriate myocardial revascularization: a joint viewpoint from an interventional cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon
Anatomical representation of stenting (left) and aorto-coronary bypass (right).
Simplified approach to chronic total occlusions in a non-infarct-related artery in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. CTO, chronic total occlusion; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; CABG, coronary artery bypass surgery; SYNTAX, Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery; VD, vessel disease.
Balancing the risks of stent thrombosis and major bleeding during primary percutaneous coronary intervention
Balancing reductions in stent thrombosis with increases in major bleeding. PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.