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★ guidelines ★

ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012
The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC

, John J. V. McMurray, Stamatis Adamopoulos, Stefan D. Anker, Angelo Auricchio, Michael Böhm, Kenneth Dickstein, Volkmar Falk, Gerasimos Filippatos, Cândida Fonseca, Miguel Angel Gomez Sanchez, Tiny Jaarsma, Lars Køber, Gregory Y. H. Lip, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Alexander Parkhomenko, Burkert M. Pieske, Bogdan A. Popescu, Per K. Rønnevik, Frans H. Rutten, Juerg Schwitter, Petar Seferovic, Janina Stepinska, Pedro T. Trindade, Adriaan A. Voors, Faiez Zannad, Andreas Zeiher, , Jeroen J. Bax, Helmut Baumgartner, Claudio Ceconi, Veronica Dean, Christi Deaton, Robert Fagard, Christian Funck-Brentano, David Hasdai, Arno Hoes, Paulus Kirchhof, Juhani Knuuti, Philippe Kolh, Theresa McDonagh, Cyril Moulin, Bogdan A. Popescu, Željko Reiner, Udo Sechtem, Per Anton Sirnes, Michal Tendera, Adam Torbicki, Alec Vahanian, Stephan Windecker, , Theresa McDonagh, Udo Sechtem, Luis Almenar Bonet, Panayiotis Avraamides, Hisham A. Ben Lamin, Michele Brignole, Antonio Coca, Peter Cowburn, Henry Dargie, Perry Elliott, Frank Arnold Flachskampf, Guido Francesco Guida, Suzanna Hardman, Bernard Iung, Bela Merkely, Christian Mueller, John N. Nanas, Olav Wendelboe Nielsen, Stein Ørn, John T. Parissis, Piotr Ponikowski
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehs104 First published online: 19 May 2012
  • Heart failure
  • Natriuretic peptides
  • Ejection fraction
  • Renin–angiotensin system
  • Beta-blockers
  • Digitalis
  • Transplantation

Appendix: six tables (3,10,11,12,13,15) are available on the ESC Website only at www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/Pages/acute-chronic-heart-failure.aspx and labelled as ‘Web Tables’ throughout the document.

Abbreviations and acronyms

ACE
angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACHD
adult congenital heart disease
AF
atrial fibrillation
AF-CHF
Atrial Fibrillation and Congestive Heart Failure
AHF
acute heart failure
AIRE
Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy
ARB
angiotensin receptor blocker
ARR
absolute risk reduction
ATLAS
Assessment of Treatment with Lisinopril And Survival
AV
atrioventricular
AVP
arginine vasopressin
BEAUTIFUL
MorBidity-mortality EvAlUaTion of the If inhibitor ivabradine in patients with coronary disease and left ventricULar dysfunction
BEST
Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial
BiVAD
bi-ventricular assist device
BNP
B-type natriuretic peptide
b.p.m.
beats per minute
BTC
bridge to candidacy
BTD
bridge to decision
BTR
bridge to recovery
BTT
bridge to transplantation
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CARE-HF
Cardiac Resynchronization in Heart Failure Study
CCB
calcium-channel blocker
CHA2DS2-VASc
Cardiac failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 (Doubled), Diabetes, Stroke (Doubled)-Vascular disease, Age 65–74 and Sex category (Female)
CHARM
Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity
CIBIS II
Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II
CMR
cardiac magnetic resonance
COMET
Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial
COMPANION
Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure
CONSENSUS
Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPERNICUS
Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival
CORONA
Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure
CPAP
continuous positive airway pressure
CRT
cardiac resynchronization therapy
CRT-D
cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator
CRT-P
cardiac resynchronization therapy-pacemaker
CT
computed tomography
DEFINITE
Defibrillators in Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation
DIG
Digitalis Investigation Group
DT
destination therapy
ECG
electrocardiogram
ECMO
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
EF
ejection fraction
eGFR
estimated glomerular filtration rate
ELITE II
Second Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Trial
EMPHASIS-HF
Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure
GFR
glomerular filtration rate
GISSI-HF
Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico-heart failure
H-ISDN
hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate
HAS-BLED
Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function (1 point each), Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly (>65), Drugs/alcohol concomitantly (1 point each)
HEAAL
Heart failure Endpoint evaluation of Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan
HF
heart failure
HF-ACTION
Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training
HF-PEF
heart failure with ‘preserved’ ejection fraction
HF-REF
heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
I-PRESERVE
Irbesartan in heart failure with preserved systolic function
i.v.
intravenous
IABP
intra-aortic balloon pump
ICD
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
LA
left atrial
LBBB
left bundle branch block
LV
left ventricular
LVAD
left ventricular assist device
LVEF
left ventricular ejection fraction
MADIT-II
Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II
MCS
mechanical circulatory support
MDCT
multi-detector computed tomography
MERIT-HF
Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure
MRA
mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist
MR-proANP
mid-regional atrial (or A-type) natriuretic peptide
MUSTIC
Multisite Stimulation in Cardiomyopathies
NIPPV
non-invasive positive pressure ventilation
NNT
number needed to treat
NSAID
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NYHA
New York Heart Association
OPTIMAAL
Optimal Therapy in Myocardial infarction with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan
PEP-CHF
Perindopril for Elderly People with Chronic Heart failure
PET
positron emission tomography
PUFA
polyunsaturated fatty acid
RAFT
Resynchronization/Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial
RALES
Randomised Aldactone Evaluation Study
RCT
randomized controlled trial
RRR
relative risk reduction
SAVE
Survival and Ventricular Enlargement
SCD-HeFT
Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial
SENIORS
Study of Effects of Nebivolol Intervention on Outcomes and Rehospitalization in Seniors With Heart Failure
SHIFT
Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial
SOLVD
Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction
SPECT
single-photon emission computed tomography
STICH
Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure
TAPSE
tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion
TDI
tissue Doppler imaging
TOE
transoesophageal echocardiography
TRACE
TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation
Val-HeFT
Valsartan Heart Failure Trial
VALIANT
Valsartan In Acute myocardial infarction
VO2
maximal oxygen consumption

1. Preamble

Guidelines summarize and …