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Instructions to Authors

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Scope of the Journal

The European Heart Journal aims to publish the highest quality material, both clinical and scientific, on all aspects of Cardiovascular Medicine. It includes articles related to research findings, technical evaluations, and reviews. In addition it provides a forum for the exchange of information on all aspects of Cardiovascular Medicine, including educational issues.

The European Heart Journal is an international, English language, peer-reviewed journal concerned with Cardiovascular Medicine. It is an official Journal of the European Society of Cardiology and is published 48 times a year. Papers submitted to this journal which do not adhere to the Instructions for Authors will be returned for appropriate revision to be in line with the Instructions for Authors. They may then be re-submitted.

Manuscript transfer within the ESC Journal Family

Oxford Journals and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) have introduced a new facility for sharing manuscripts among all nine ESC journals. Authors submitting to the flagship journal European Heart Journal (EHJ) will, where appropriate, be given the option for their manuscript to be considered by the relevant sub-specialty journal when EHJ is unable to accept their manuscript for publication. The EHJ receives roughly 3,600 manuscripts annually and is able to accept only 10% of those submitted.

Once authors agree for their manuscript to be shared within the ESC Journal Family, there will be no need for re-submission and any reviewer comments will also be shared, resulting in a reduced time to a decision. Click here for more information.

Article categories

The European Heart Journal accepts the following categories of articles:

Clinical papers Clinical studies based on either normal subjects or patients. It is the editorial policy not to accept case studies/reports. Clinical papers should not exceed 5000 words (including references, figure legends and tables). Only up to 50 references will be published; if more references are submitted, the reference list will be published online only.

Basic Science papers The results of cardiovascular basic science research will be considered for publication provided they have an obvious clinical relevance. Basic science papers are defined as those which report on research performed either in experimental animals or cells, tissue or in vitro. Papers in this category should not exceed 5000 words (including references, figure legends and tables). Only up to 50 references will be published; if more references are submitted, the reference list will be published online only.

Reviews The European Heart Journal publishes a limited number of scholarly, comprehensive reviews whose aims are to summarize and critically evaluate research in the field addressed and identify future implications. Reviews should not exceed 5000 words (including references and the text in figure legends and tables). Only up to 50 references will be published; if more references are submitted, the reference list will be published online. Clinical reviews are usually invited by the Editors, but can also be submitted if unsolicited.

Editorials All editorials should be limited to 1500 words (including references, figure legends and tables), with a maximum of 15 references.

Current opinion Papers in this section will provide our readers with focused coverage of topical issues in cardiovascular medicine and related disciplines which are of high current interest and potential. Current opinions should be limited to 2500 words (including references, figure legends and tables), with a maximum of 20 references.

Correspondence/E-letters The former Letters to the Editor section has now been transformed into an E-letter platform. E-letters must be submitted by the respective authors and may not exceed 500 words and should focus on a specific article published in the European Heart Journal. No original data may be included. For technical reasons, E-letters must not contain any italics, bold type, or quotation marks. The authors of the article cited will be invited to reply. E-letters will be published within 14 days of submission in the system and will not receive PubMed entries.

Accepted E-letters and authors' responses will be published solely in the online E-letter platform, and only in exceptional cases will letters be printed in a journal issue. It should be noted that publication of an E-letter does not imply approval, recommendation or endorsement of its contents by the European Heart Journal.

Submitting an E-letter in response to a particular online article is quick and easy. Go to the article's page, click 'Explore' and find the E-letter information below.

Cardiovascular Flashlights This category is intended for striking, illustrative, or rare clinical images such as electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, tomographs, x-rays or pathology specimens. Images in this category may be published on the cover of the Journal and should be submitted as one figure, with separate lettered panels if required. The complete image should also have an Aspect Ratio 1:1. The image should be submitted with the names of no more than four authors and the clinical message contained in the picture should be amplified in a 250 word description (no references) which will be included with the image. Please also include a short title with the submission. Authors are encouraged to include videos with the submissions which can now be published in the article, please see below for further details. Authors must also submit a still image that can be used in the print article.

Interactive Cardiovascular Flashlights This new feature is an abridged version of a Clinical Case with MCQs, available on the ESC website for case-based learning purposes. These interactive cases represent typically encountered clinical scenarios, discussing findings, work-up, and management in the light of applicable recommendations, guidelines and key papers.
Full versions of the Clinical Cases are submitted to the ESC Education department for review (for more information on the case format and upload process, contact education@escardio.org).
Those cases approved by the ESC are published on its website and submitted to the EHJ Editorial Board for validation. Upon validation by the EHJ Editorial Board, an abridged version of the case would be published in the EHJ (print and online) with a link to the full case—and related MCQs—posted on the ESC website.
(The Interactive Cardiovascular Flashlight has the same format as the Cardiovascular Flashlight.)

Submission of manuscripts

PLEASE NOTE: As an integral part of the online submission process, all authors are required to confirm whether they have any conflicts of interest to declare, and to provide details of these by submitting individually completed Conflict of Interest forms (download here). All authors must also ensure that they complete an Author Responsibility form (download here). It is the corresponding author's responsibility to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy, and submission is conditional on these forms being completed and included with submission.

Further, in the case of clinical trials involving humans, the Corresponding Author is responsible for ensuring that trials, in particular those surrounding pharmaceuticals, devices, or aspects relating to nutrition, are registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject, in accordance with the provisions as stated in the Declaration of Helsinki.

The European Heart Journal uses a web-based submission and review system. Online submission facilitates the submission of manuscripts from authors and streamlines the reviewing and publication process.

Should you presently be unable to take advantage of online submission and review, please fax the Editorial office on (+41) 44 634 5530 for further instructions.

Authors may send queries concerning the submission process to eurheartj@usz.ch. For enquiries about the review process and journal procedures, the editorial office can be contacted at eurheartj@usz.ch. As a matter of policy, the status of documents will not be discussed by telephone.

Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, please go to the online submission system by clicking here. First-time users must click "Register" on the navigation menu at the top of the screen. The system will send an automatic e-mail with your user name and password. Detailed guidelines for authors and reviewers are available at the submission site.

Please inform OUP (wordmason@mac.com) or the ESC (press@escardio.org) if your institution is planning a press release on your article to plan how we can support the diffusion of your work.

Review of manuscripts

All manuscripts correctly submitted to the European Heart Journal will first be reviewed by the Editors. Some manuscripts will be returned to authors at this stage if the paper is deemed inappropriate for publication in the European Heart Journal, if the paper does not meet submission requirements, or if the paper is not deemed to have a sufficiently high priority. All papers considered suitable by the Editors to progress further in the review process will undergo appropriate peer review and all papers provisionally accepted for publication will undergo a detailed statistical review.

Fast track publication

(1) To petition for fast track status authors must send their manuscript by e-mail to: fasttrack.eurheartj@usz.ch, ensuring that the manuscript adheres to the European Heart Journal's Instructions for Authors. The accompanying cover letter should detail why the authors think the manuscript would be suitable for fast track publication. The Editorial Office will make the decision as to whether the manuscript is suitable for a fast track or regular submission. Authors are requested not to enter their manuscripts as regular submissions when petitioning for fast track status.

(2) The Editorial Office will communicate whether fast track assessment is appropriate within 48 hours. If the Editors decide not to accept fast track assessment, the paper may be considered for the normal review process. Authors will also have the opportunity to withdraw their submission. Please note that fast track assessment does not in any way guarantee acceptance of the manuscript.

(3) For manuscripts entering fast-track assessment, the first Editorial decision will be made within 5 working days. If provisionally accepted, a revised manuscript must be returned to the Editorial Office as soon as possible.

(4) If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the Editors will aim to publish it online 10 days after acceptance and in print as soon as possible, provided galley proofs are returned within 48 hours.

Authorship

All individuals listed as authors should qualify for authorship and should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Authors included in the manuscript should meet all of the following conditions: 1) substantial contributions to the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Any other contributors to the work who do not qualify for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgement section. For further information about authorship please refer to the ICMJE guidelines.

Preparation of manuscripts

All submitted manuscripts must not exceed 5000 words (or for Editorials 1500 words and Correspondence 500 words), including References, Figure Legends and Tables. The number of Tables, Figures and References should be appropriate to the manuscript content and should not be excessive.

Style and spelling: Oxford English spelling should be used. Authors whose first language is not English are requested to have their manuscripts checked carefully before submission. This will help expedite the review process and avoid confusion.

Abbreviations of standard SI units of measurement only should be used.

Declaration of Helsinki: The authors should state that their study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki, that the locally appointed ethics committee has approved the research protocol and that informed consent has been obtained from the subjects (or their guardians).


Animal experiements: The authors should state that their study complies with their institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals.

Sections of the manuscript: Clinical and Pre-clinical papers should be divided into the following sections: (1) Title page, (2) Abstract and Keywords, (3) Translational Perspective (translational aspects; only applicable for pre-clinical papers), (4) Introduction, (5) Methods, (6) Results, (7) Discussion, (8) Acknowledgements, (9) References, (10) Figure legends, (11) Appendices, (12) Text tables, (13) Figures.

General format: Prepare your manuscript text using a Word processing package (save in .doc or .rtf format). Submissions of text in the form of PDF files are not permitted. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, including text, tables, legends and references.

Number each page. Please avoid footnotes; use instead, and as sparingly as possible, parenthesis within brackets. Enter text in the style and order of the journal. Type references in the correct order and style of the journal. Type unjustified, without hyphenation, except for compound words. Type headings in the style of the journal. Use the TAB key once for paragraph indents. Where possible use Times New Roman for the text font and Symbol for the Greek and special characters. Use the word processing formatting features to indicate Bold, Italic, Greek, Maths, Superscript and Subscript characters. Clearly identify unusual symbols and Greek letters. Differentiate between the letter O and zero, and the letters I and l and the number 1. Mark the approximate position of each figure and table.

Check the final copy of your paper carefully, as any spelling mistakes and errors may be translated into the typeset version.

Title page: The title page should include the following: (1) the title, (2) the name(s) of authors (3) the institution(s) where work was performed, (4) the position, institution, and location of all authors, (5) the telephone number, fax number and e-mail address of the corresponding author (6) the institutional affiliations of the authors (including corporate appointments) should be acknowledged in a footnote. Abstract All abstracts may not contain more than 250 words and should also be submitted as a separate file. The abstract should be formatted with the following heading: (1) Aims, (2) Methods and Results, (3) Conclusion. Keywords A maximum of six keywords may be submitted.

Translational Perspective: A short clinical summary of 3-5 sentences to provide the reader with a very brief take-home message on translational aspects. This summary will be published below the abstract in both the online and print versions of the journal. It will also be included in the electronic Table of Contents sent to readers.

Figures: The review process will not begin until all figures are received. Figures should be limited to the number necessary for clarity and must not duplicate data given in tables or in the text. Standard submissions should have no more than 8 total figures and tables. Any number exceeding this should be designated as supplementary material for online availability only. They must be suitable for high quality reproduction and should be submitted in the desired final printed size so that reduction can be avoided. Figures should be no larger than 125 (height) x 180 (width) mm (5 x 7 inches) and should be submitted in a separate file from that of the manuscript.

Electronic submission of figures: Figures should be saved in TIFF format at a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch at the final printed size for colour figures and photographs, and 1200 pixels per inch for black and white line drawings. Although some other formats can be translated into TIFF format by the publisher, the conversion may alter the tones, resolution and contrast of the image. Digital colour art should be submitted in CMYK rather than RGB format, as the printing process requires colours to be separated into CMYK and this conversion can alter the intensity and brightness of colours. Therefore authors should be satisfied with the colours in CMYK (both on screen and when printed) before submission. Please also keep in mind that colours can appear differently on different screens and printers. Failure to follow these guides could result in complications and delays.

Where there is difficulty submitting the figures electronically, they may be sent, separately from the manuscript, by post to:

European Heart Journal - Figures, European Heart Journal, Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, Careum Campus, Moussonstrasse 4, CH-8091 Zurich, Switerland

Photographs: Photographs should be of sufficiently high quality with respect to detail, contrast and fineness of grain to withstand the inevitable loss of contrast and detail inherent in the printing process. Please indicate the magnification by a rule on the photograph.

The EHJ does not charge for colour figures.

Line drawings: Please provide these as clear, sharp illustrations, suitable for reproduction as submitted. All labelling should be on the original. Faint and grey shading or stippling will be lost upon reproduction and should be avoided. Where various shadings are used within one figure please ensure that it is easy to differentiate between them, using standard shadings (see the hard copy of the journal for examples). There should be sufficient white space between lines and dots to ensure the areas will not fill in and look grey. If stippling is used, this should be made up of clear black dots with visible white space between them.

Ensure that the size of the lettering is in proportion with the overall dimensions of the drawing. Ideally, the drawings should be submitted in the desired final printed size to avoid reduction. If submitting line drawings which require reduction, please check that the lettering will be clearly legible after the drawing has been reduced to the size at which it will be printed. After reduction, letters should not be smaller than 2 mm in height.

Videos: Videos can now be published in the online article with a still image of the video appearing in the print version. Authors should submit videos in MP4 format. Still images to be used in the article need to be provided and should represent as best as possible the main subject of the video. Video files should be clearly named as video 1, video 2 etc, and still images should be named ‘video 1 still image’. Any supplementary videos that should not be published in the article should be uploaded as supplementary data (please see below).

Figure and video legends: These should be on a separate, numbered manuscript sheet grouped under the heading "Legends" on a separate sheet of the manuscript after the References. Define all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure. Common abbreviations and others in the preceding text should not be redefined in the legend.

Tables: Tables should be typed with double spacing, but minimising redundant space, and each should be placed on a separate sheet. Tables should be submitted, wherever possible, in a portrait, as opposed to landscape, layout. Each Table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals. Tables should also have a title above and an explanatory footnote below.

Acknowledgements: Substantive contributions of individuals, should be noted in the Acknowledgements, positioned before the conflict of interest statement.

Conflict of interest: All authors must make a formal statement at the time of submission indicating any potential conflict of interest that might constitute an embarrassment to any of the authors if it were not to be declared and were to emerge after publication. Such conflicts might include, but are not limited to, shareholding in or receipt of a grant or consultancy fee from a company whose product features in the submitted manuscript or which manufactures a competing product.

European Heart Journal follows the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and an ICMJE disclosure of potential conflicts of interest form must be submitted for each author at the time of manuscript submission. Forms must be submitted even if there is no conflict of interest. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy prior to submission. Submissions without accompanying forms will not be sent for peer review.

A conflict of interest statement must also be included in the manuscript after any "Acknowledgements" and "Funding" sections and should summarize any conflicts of interest included on the ICMJE form. If there is no conflict of interest, authors must include 'Conflict of Interest: none declared'.

Reference format

References should be identified in the text by Arabic numerals and numbered in the order cited. All references should be compiled at the end of the article in the Vancouver style (i.e. author-number system, however, please refer to journal specific instructions below).

Complete information should be given for each Reference including the title of the article, abbreviated journal title and page numbers. All authors should be listed.

Personal communications, manuscripts in preparation and other unpublished data should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in parentheses in the text. Authors should get permission from the source to cite unpublished data. Titles of journals should be abbreviated in accordance with Index Medicus (see list printed annually in the January issue of Index Medicus). If a journal is not listed in Index Medicus then its name should be written out in full.

Article citation example:

1. Schroeder S, Baumbach A, Mahrholdt H. The impact of untreated coronary dissections on the acute and long-term outcome after intravascular ultrasound guided PTCA. Eur Heart J 2000;21:137-145.

Book citation example:

2. Nichols WW, Rourke MF. Aging, High Blood Pressure and Disease in Human. 3rd ed. London/Melbourne: Lea and Febiger; 1990.

Chapter citation example:

3. Nichols WW, O'Rourke MF. Aging, high blood pressure and disease in humans. In: Arnold E, ed. McDonald's Blood Flow in Arteries: Theoretical, Experimental and Clinical Principles. 3rd ed. London/Melbourne/Auckland: Lea and Febiger; 1990. p398-420.

Webpage citation example: 3. Panteghini M. Recommendations on use of biochemical markers in acute coronary syndrome: IFCC proposals. eJIFCC 14. http://www.ifcc.org/ejifcc/vol14no2/1402062003014n.htm (28 May 2004)

Where the date in parenthesis refers to the access date.

If you use EndNote and/or Reference Manager to facilitate referencing citations (not required for submission), this journal's style is available for use.

Supplementary data

Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, list of Investigators, or additional figures.

All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats (instructions for the preparation of Supplementary data can be viewed here). All material to be considered as Supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary data upon submission. Also ensure that the Supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary.

Statistics

The application of adequate statistical methods is a prerequisite for publication in the European Heart Journal (EHJ) (for a basic statement see ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals’, Ann Intern Med 1997 126: 36-47). The rationale of the EHJ regarding the statistical methods applied is ‘Be as simple as possible, but as sophisticated as needed’. For example, clinical trials with their formalized framework have to meet more specific statistical standards than many pathophysiological studies. The relevant points (and pitfalls) regarding study design, analysis and reporting are summarised in this statistical guide. For studies with a sophisticated design, the collaboration of a professional statistician is recommended.

The design and data analysis should be briefly but clearly described in ‘Methods’. Please specify the program used, the significance level and that it is two-sided (which is the rule). If feasible use standard methods. Whenever uncommon or new statistical methods are applied, a reference has to be given. For unusually complicated or innovative methods, it is recommended to provide a detailed description as ‘supplementary material’ for the interested reader.

Sources of funding

Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Conflict of interest

All authors must make a formal statement at the time of submission indicating any potential conflict of interest that might constitute an embarrassment to any of the authors if it were not to be declared and were to emerge after publication. Such conflicts might include, but are not limited to, shareholding in or receipt of a grant or consultancy fee from a company whose product features in the submitted manuscript or which manufactures a competing product.

European Heart Journal follows the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and an ICMJE disclosure of potential conflicts of interest form must be submitted for each author at the time of manuscript submission. Forms must be submitted even if there is no conflict of interest. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy prior to submission. Submissions without accompanying forms will not be sent for peer review.

A conflict of interest statement must also be included in the manuscript after any "Acknowledgements" and "Funding" sections and should summarize any conflicts of interest included on the ICMJE form. If there is no conflict of interest, authors must include 'Conflict of Interest: none declared'.

Open access option for authors

European Heart Journal authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in EHJ can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC-BY-NC)

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The open access charges are as follows:

Regular charge:

  • CC BY: £2000/$3500/€3000
  • CC BY-NC: £1700/$3000/€2550

List B Developing country charge*:

  • CC BY: £1000/$1750/€1500
  • CC BY-NC: £850/$1500/€1275

List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Orders from the UK will be subject tothe current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

Language editing pre-submission

OUP offers pre-submission language editing through Oxford Language Editing, a service for researchers all over the world. Language editing, particularly if English is not your first language, can be used to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by the journal editors and reviewers. Visit www.oxfordlanguageediting.com to find out more about the freelance editors available and the different services offered. Please note that edited manuscripts will still need to undergo peer-review by the journal.

Increase readership and citations to your research articles

The European Society of Cardiology is working with a new service called Kudos to help our authors maximize the impact of their published work. Kudos provides a free set of tools to help you explain your work in new ways and share it both within your networks, and more widely. You can measure the results of these actions and track the resulting increase in downloads, readership and, ultimately, citations.

This service is free of charge and only takes a few minutes of your time. For more details, see www.growkudos.com

Self-archiving and post-print policy

Authors may deposit the accepted manuscript of their article into PubMedCentral, other subject repositories or institutional repositories, but must stipulate that public availability be delayed until 12 months after the first online publication. For further details of this policy please visit: Author Self-archiving Policy

Publication embargos

If authors have embargos on papers, for example if they are presenting their research results at a conference, we are able to delay publication of the paper until the embargo is lifted. Authors should include a note in the cover letter at submission, and also when returning proofs, about the embargo and the exact date and time the paper can be published.

Copyright information

It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors grant an exclusive licence to The European Society of Cardiology. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the licence agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online licence to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. Please notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Permissions information

If illustrations or figures are to be duplicated from previously published work, written permission must be obtained both from the publisher and the author, and a credit line giving the source added to the relevant Figure Legend. If text material (250 to 300 words) is to be reproduced from published sources, written permission is required from both publisher and author. For shorter quotations, it is sufficient to add a bibliographic credit. The Letters containing the permission for the reproduction of either text or illustrations must accompany the manuscript. If you have been unable to obtain permission, please indicate this.

If all illustrations and figures in the manuscript are original, have not been previously published and therefore do not require permission to reproduce, please include the following statement in the file uploaded for Permissions Information: All illustrations and figures in the manuscript are entirely original and do not require reprint permission.

Proofs

Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. Please provide an e-mail address to enable page proofs to be sent as PDF files via e-mail. These should be checked thoroughly for any possible changes or typographic errors. Significant alterations instigated at this stage by the author will be charged to the author.

It is the intention of the Editor to review, correct and publish your article as quickly possible. To achieve this it is important that all of your corrections are returned to us in one all-inclusive mail or fax. Subsequent additional corrections will not be possible, so please ensure that your first communication is complete.

Online access and offprints

Details of free online access will be sent to the corresponding author, who may then circulate them to co-authors. Offprints can be claimed using the Oxford Journals Author Services site, a link to which is provided to the corresponding author when the paper enters production. Late orders submitted after the journal is in press are subject to increased prices.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number.